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Comparative characteristic of Triticum aestivum/Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum/Triticum dicoccum hybrid lines by genomic composition and resistance to fungal diseases under different environmental conditions

Leonova, I. N., Badaeva, E. D., Orlovskaya, O. A., Röder, M. S., Khotyleva, L. V., Salina, E. A., Shumny, V. K.
Russian journal of genetics 2013 v.49 no.11 pp. 1112-1118
Triticum aestivum, Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccon, Triticum turgidum subsp. durum, chromosomes, cluster analysis, cultivars, disease resistance, durum wheat, environmental factors, fungi, genes, genetic lines, genetic variation, hexaploidy, hybrids, immunity, leaf blotch, leaf rust, leaves, microsatellite repeats, nuclear genome, pathogens, powdery mildew, stem rust, tetraploidy, Belarus, Siberia
The genetic diversity of common wheat hybrid lines Triticum aestivum/Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum/Triticum dicoccum (2n = 42, F₆–₇) using chromosome-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers and C-banding of chromosomes was studied. Cluster analysis of data obtained by 42 SSR markers indicated that the hybrid lines can be broken into three groups according to their origin. There were two cases of complete genetic similarity between lines 183₂-2/184₁-6 and 208-3/213-1, which were obtained using common wheat as the parental plants. In cross combinations, when the stabilization of the nuclear genome of hexaploid lines occurred against a background of the cytoplasmic genome of tetraploid wheats, there was a high level of divergence between sister lines, in some cases exceeding 50%. The evaluation of the degree of susceptibility of the lines to powdery mildew, leaf and stem rust, and septoria leaf blotch was performed under different environmental conditions. It was shown that resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust significantly depended on the region where assays were conducted. An evaluation of the field data showed that the lines 195-3, 196-1, and 221-1 with T. durum genetic material displayed complex resistance to fungal pathogens in Western Siberia and the Republic of Belarus. For lines 195-3 and 196-1, one shows a possible contribution of chromosomes 4B and 5B in the formation of complex resistance to diseases. Hybrid lines with complex resistance can be used to expand the genetic diversity of modern common wheat cultivars for genes of immunity.