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Protective effect of melatonin administration on abamectin-induced immunotoxicity in Spodoptera litura (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

Vengateswari, Govindaraj, Subala, Subramanian Panchuravindra Rajan, Shivakumar, Muthugounder Subramanian
International journal of pest management 2018 v.64 no.4 pp. 333-344
Spodoptera litura, abamectin, enzyme activity, hemocytes, immunomodulators, immunotoxicity, insects, larvae, melatonin, nodulation, pesticides, prophenoloxidase, protective effect, protein content, survival rate, tissues, vertebrates
In vertebrates, many studies verified the immunomodulatory effect of melatonin in various tissues. Its exact role in lower organisms like insects has been very sketchy. The present study deals with understanding the immunomodulatory effect of melatonin in pesticide exposed insects. Total hemocyte count, Differential hemocyte count, Prophenoloxidase activity, and nodulation mechanism at different time intervals were studied. Results showed the abamectin results in significant increase (p < 0.01) in haemocytes numbers at 6, 48, and 72 h. Abamectin toxicity was counteracted by melatonin, with decreasing the hemocytes at 2, 4, and 12 h. Prophenoloxidase activity and protein content (p < 0.001) at 48 and 72 h of Melatonin + abamectin were slightly decreased. There was a significant decrease in nodule formation in 12–24 h in melatonin treated groups and it was clearly visible at 6 h. Increased Prohemocytes, Plasmatocytes, and Oenocytoids numbers decline in melatonin treatment. Melatonin treatment increased the survival rate on pesticide exposed insects. Results suggest that melatonin exposure significantly reduces the toxicity in pesticide exposed larvae which in turn brings back immunological profile in a time dependent manner.