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What proteomic analysis of the apoplast tells us about plant–pathogen interactions

Martínez‐González, A. P., Ardila, H. D., Martínez‐Peralta, S. T., Melgarejo‐Muñoz, L. M., Castillejo‐Sánchez, M. A., Jorrín‐Novo, J. V.
Plant pathology 2018 v.67 no.8 pp. 1647-1668
apoplast, bioinformatics, defense mechanisms, digestion, evolution, hosts, mass spectrometry, peptides, plant pathogens, protein secretion, proteins, proteomics, solubilization, tissues, washing
Plant pathogens have developed different strategies during their evolution to infect and colonize their hosts. In the same way, plants have evolved different mechanisms acting against potential pathogens trying to infect and colonize their tissues. Regulation of a wide variety of proteins is required in order to perceive the pathogen and to activate the plant defence mechanisms. The apoplast is the first compartment where these recognition phenomena occur in most plant–pathogen interactions, allowing the exchange of different molecules and facilitating inter‐ and intracellular communication in plant cells. Proteomic analysis of the apoplast in recent years has found the initial biochemical responses involved in pathogen recognition and early defence responses. However, this proteomic approach requires some specific experimental conditions to obtain an extract free of cytoplasmic proteins and nonprotein contaminants that affect the subsequent stages of separation and quantification. Obtaining the highest proportion of proteins from the apoplastic space in infected tissues requires different steps such as extraction of apoplastic washing fluids and preparation of total secreted proteins (protein precipitation, solubilization, separation and digestion). Protein identification using mass spectrometry techniques and bioinformatics tools identifying peptides for the extracellular exportation is required to confirm the apoplastic location. This review compiles the most commonly used techniques for proteomic studies, focusing on the early biochemical changes occurring in the apoplast of plants infected by a wide range of pathogens. The scope of this approach to discover the molecular mechanisms involved in the plant–pathogen interaction is discussed.