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An anti-passivation ink for the preparation of electrodes for use in electrochemical immunoassays

Zheng, Qi-qi, Lu, Yuan-chao, Ye, Zun-zhong, Ping, Jian-feng, Wu, Jian, Ying, Yi-bin
Journal of Zhejiang University 2018 v.19 no.9 pp. 726-734
alkaline phosphatase, catalysts, chitosan, detection limit, electrochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, glassy carbon electrode, gold, graphene, ionic liquids, p-nitrophenol, scanning electron microscopy, troponin I
p-Nitrophenylphosphate (PNPP) is usually employed as the substrate for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. p-Nitrophenol (PNP), the product of PNPP, with the catalyst alkaline phosphatase (ALP), will passivate an electrode, which limits applications in electrochemical analysis. A novel anti-passivation ink used in the preparation of a graphene/ionic liquid/chitosan composited (rGO/IL/Chi) electrode is proposed to solve the problem. The anti-passivation electrode was fabricated by directly writing the graphene-ionic liquid-chitosan composite on a single-side conductive gold strip. A glassy carbon electrode, a screen-printed electrode, and a graphene-chitosan composite-modified screen-printed electrode were investigated for comparison. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the surface structure of the four different electrodes and cyclic voltammetry was carried out to compare their performance. The results showed that the rGO/IL/Chi electrode had the best performance according to its low peak potential and large peak current. Amperometric responses of the different electrodes to PNP proved that only the rGO/IL/Chi electrode was capable of anti-passivation. The detection of cardiac troponin I was used as a test example for electrochemical immunoassay. Differential pulse voltammetry was performed to detect cardiac troponin I and obtain a calibration curve. The limit of detection was 0.05 ng/ml.