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CCN3 secreted by prostaglandin E2 inhibits intimal cushion formation in the rat ductus arteriosus

Iwai, Kenji, Nagasawa, Kazumichi, Akaike, Toru, Oshima, Toshio, Kato, Takashi, Minamisawa, Susumu
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2018 v.503 no.4 pp. 3242-3247
aorta, dose response, ductus arteriosus, endothelium, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hyaluronic acid, immunohistochemistry, liquid chromatography, messenger RNA, myocytes, prostaglandins, protein secretion, proteins, rats, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, smooth muscle, tandem mass spectrometry
The ductus arteriosus (DA), an essential fetal shunt between the pulmonary trunk and the descending aorta, changes its structure during development. Our previous studies have demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-EP4 signaling promotes intimal cushion formation (ICF) by activating the migration of DA smooth muscle cells via the secretion of hyaluronan. We hypothesized that, in addition to hyaluronan, PGE2 may secrete other proteins that also regulate vascular remodeling in the DA. In order to detect PGE2 stimulation-secreted proteins, we found that CCN3 protein was increased in the culture supernatant in the presence of PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner by nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that PGE2 stimulation tended to increase the expression levels of CCN3 mRNA in DA smooth muscle cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CCN3 was highly localized in the entire smooth muscle layers and the endothelium of the DA. Furthermore, exogenous CCN3 inhibited PGE2-induced ICF in the ex vivo DA tissues. These results suggest that CCN3 is a secreted protein of the DA smooth muscle cells induced by PGE2 to suppress ICF of the DA. The present study indicates that CCN3 could be a novel negative regulator of ICF in the DA to fine-tune the PGE2-mediated DA remodeling.