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Antiparasitic effect of the Psidium guajava L. (guava) and Psidium brownianum MART. EX DC. (araçá-de-veado) extracts

Machado, Antonio J.T., Santos, Antonia T.L., Martins, Gioconda M.A.B., Cruz, Rafael P., Costa, Maria do S., Campina, Fábia F., Freitas, Maria A., Bezerra, Camila F., Leal, Antonio L.A.B., Carneiro, Joara N.P., Coronel, Cathia, Rolón, Miriam, Gómez, Celeste V., Coutinho, Henrique D.M., Morais-Braga, Maria F.B.
Food and chemical toxicology 2018 v.119 pp. 275-280
Leishmania braziliensis, Psidium brownianum, Psidium guajava, Trypanosoma cruzi, antiparasitic agents, cytotoxicity, death, fibroblasts, guavas, leaves, mortality, promastigotes, therapeutics, toxicity testing
In the search for new therapeutic agents against neglected diseases, both aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium guajava L. and P. brownianum Mart ex DC leaves were investigated regarding their antiparasitic effect and cytotoxic potential. The extracts were tested at three concentrations (250, 500 and 1000 μg/mL) against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms (Chagas, 1909), Leishmania braziliensis (Vianna, 1911) and L. infantum promastigotes forms (Nicolle, 1908), as well as against fibroblasts. P. guajava showed no activity against T. cruzi forms, while the hydroethanolic (PBHE), aqueous by decoction (PBAED) and aqueous by infusion (PBAEI) P. browninaum extracts were responsible, respectively, for inhibiting 100, 100 and 92.68% of T. cruzi epimastigote growth at the 1000 μg/mL concentration. The P. brownianum hydroethanolic extract (PBHE) at the highest concentration caused 58.46% death in L. braziliensis, thus demonstrating moderate activity, however when tested against L. infantum, the PBHE inhibited their growth by 37.16%, revealing its low activity. As for the cytotoxicity assays, the P. brownianum aqueous extract by decoction (PBAED) obtained the highest death percentage when compared to the others, causing 90.85% fibroblast mortality at the 1000 μg/mL concentration.