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Thermal Inactivation of Avian Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in an Effluent Treatment System Within a Biosafety Level 2 and 3 Enhanced Facility

Chmielewski, Revis, Day, Michael, Spatz, Stephen, Yu, Qingzhong, Gast, Richard, Zsak, Laslo, Swayne, David
Applied Biosafety 2011 v.16 no.4 pp. 206
Avian metapneumovirus, Influenza A virus, Mardivirus, Newcastle disease virus, Protoparvovirus, Rotavirus, Salmonella Enteritidis, Turkey astrovirus, animal viruses, avian influenza, bacteria, bacterial infections, biomedical research, biosafety, buffers, decontamination, disinfection, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, heat, heat inactivation, heat tolerance, in vitro studies, laboratories, margin of safety, models, mortality, sterilizing, temperature, turkeys, viruses
Avian influenza (AI) virus, avian paramyxovirus Type 1 (APMV-1 or NDV), reovirus, rotavirus, turkey astrovirus (TAst), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Marek’s disease virus (MDV-1), avian parvovirus (ChPV), and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis are significant biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) or biosafety level 3 enhanced (BSL-3E) pathogens of poultry that are studied in veterinary medical research laboratories worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a moderate temperature, effluent decontamination system (EDS) to inactivate avian pathogens. First, the thermal inactivation processes for AI virus, APMV-1, reovirus, and rotaviruses were determined in phosphatebuffered saline (PBS) using in vitro assays from which thermal death rates (Dt) and changes in heat resistance (zD) of the AI virus and APMV-1 were determined at various time/temperature parameters. The PBS validation process demonstrated that 6 log10 reduction was achieved following heating at 82.2ºC within 30 seconds for AI virus and APMV-1, 1.8 minutes for astrovirus, while reoviruses and rotaviruses were destroyed within 3 minutes. Second, to determine whether pathogens were adequately inactivated in a moderate temperature EDS system, vials containing avian viruses (5.1-11.1 log10 TCID, EID50/ml, or infectious particle/ml) and bacteria (9.1 log10 cfu/ml) were placed in the effluent tank and exposed to a standard cycle of 82.2ºC for 6 hours. The EDS process totally inactivated enveloped and nonenveloped viruses with complete inactivation of greater than 5.1-11.1 log10 TCID/ml of specific pathogens. The data from the inactivation models and the EDS validation test showed that the 6 log10 reduction required for a sanitary assurance level of effluent was achieved with a significant margin of safety.