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Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs): A review on analytical methods and occurrence in wastewater and aquatic environment

Pantelaki, Ioanna, Voutsa, Dimitra
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.649 pp. 247-263
analytical methods, aquatic environment, electronics, fabrics, flame retardants, furniture, organophosphorus compounds, plasticizers, risk, sediments, sludge, solubility, wastewater
Nowadays, there is an increasing concern for organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) due to high production and use following the phase out and stringent regulation in the use of brominated flame retardants. OPFRs represent a group of compounds with a wide range in their polarity, solubility and persistence. OPFRs are widely used as flame retardants in various consumer products such as textiles, electronics, industrial materials and furniture to prevent the risk of fire. They are also utilized as plasticizers, antifoaming or anti-wear agents in lacquers, hydraulic fluids and floor polishing agents. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge regardimg the analytical methodology applied for their determination in wastewater and aquatic environment as well as their occurrence in water, wastewater, sediments and sludge. Knowledge gaps and future perspectives have been identified, which include the elucidation of sources, pathways and fate of OPFRs in aquatic environment and possible risks.