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Inhibition of Fusarium trichothecene biosynthesis by yeast extract components extractable with ethyl acetate

Tanaka, Yuya, Nakajima, Yuichi, Maeda, Kazuyuki, Matsuyama, Momoko, Kanamaru, Kyoko, Kobayashi, Tetsuo, Ohsato, Shuichi, Kimura, Makoto
International journal of food microbiology 2019 v.289 pp. 24-29
15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, Fusarium graminearum, autoclaving, biosynthesis, carbon, drying, ethyl acetate, fructose, fungi, glucose, hydrophobicity, liquids, mechanism of action, regulator genes, solvents, sucrose, transcription (genetics), trichodiene synthase, yeast extract
While Fusarium graminearum readily produces trichothecenes in complex media containing sucrose as the carbon source (YS_60), the amount of the mycotoxin is quite limited when other sugars, such as glucose and fructose, are used. We found that autoclaving of media containing fructose and yeast extract (YF_60) results in the formation of inhibitors of trichothecene biosynthesis by F. graminearum JCM 9873, a strain that produces 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) in liquid culture. Removal of the solvent fraction from the autoclaved media after ethyl acetate extraction attenuated the inhibitory activity against trichothecene production. In addition, extraction of the non-autoclaved complex media with ethyl acetate, followed by removal of the solvent fraction, similarly resulted in increased accumulation of the mycotoxin. Although the increase in trichothecene production differed considerably among fungal strains and yeast extract products, F. graminearum species complex generally responded to the medium treatments in the same way. These results suggest that some hydrophobic substances that arise during the drying and heating of yeast extract negatively affected trichothecene production in liquid culture. Modes of actions of inhibitory substances were partially characterized using strain JCM 9873, with focus on the transcriptional and functional analyses of Tri6, a key regulator gene in trichothecene biosynthesis. The presence of the ethyl acetate-extractable substances in autoclaved YF_60 media decreased the relative transcription level of Tri6, as well as that of a trichodiene synthase gene Tri5. Thus, the substances exerted their inhibitory action through suppression of Tri6 expression. By using a yeast extract lot that completely prevented trichothecene production by the wild-type strain in autoclaved YS_60 medium, we prepared YF_60 media and cultured a constitutive Tri6 overexpressor strain described by Maeda et al. (2018). Despite the high transcription level of Tri6, the presence of the ethyl acetate extractable-substances suppressed 15-ADON production. These results suggested that both Tri6p-independent initial activation of Tri6 expression and subsequent Tri6p-dependent activation of Tri expression were affected by the hydrophobic substances in the yeast extract products.