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Isolated colonic Crohn's disease is associated with a reduced response to exclusive enteral nutrition compared to ileal or ileocolonic disease

Xu, Yihan, Guo, Zhen, Cao, Lei, Xie, Tingbin, Shen, Weisong, Li, Yi, Gong, Jianfeng, Zhu, Weiming
Clinical nutrition 2018
Crohn disease, adults, blood serum, body mass index, enteral feeding, ileum, lean body mass, models, multivariate analysis, patients, remission
Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) as a primary therapy is safe and effective for inducing the clinical remission of active luminal Crohn's disease (CD). Whether isolated colonic involvement affects the efficacy of EEN is controversial. We aimed to identify the influence of isolated colonic CD on the efficacy of EEN and to determine other potential predictors of the response to induction therapy with EEN in adult patients with CD.Data for adult CD patients treated with EEN as an induction therapy at our centre from January 1, 2014, to May 31, 2017, were reviewed. Eligible patients were divided into an isolated colonic Crohn's disease (cCD) group and a non-isolated colonic Crohn's disease (non-cCD) group according to the disease location. The rates of clinical remission and inflammatory and nutritional serum markers were compared between the groups. Possible relationships between isolated colonic involvement or other potential factors and the efficacy of EEN were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The propensity score matching method was used to confirm the results.Overall, 241 patients were included in the analysis: 52 patients in the cCD group and 189 patients in the non-cCD group. The rates of clinical remission differed between the two groups (cCD group: 51.9% versus non-cCD group: 68.3%, P = 0.029). Multivariate analyses indicated that isolated colonic involvement was associated with a reduced response to EEN (OR = 2.74; [CI] 95% = [1.2–6.23], P = 0.016). Additionally, the lean body mass index (LBMI) before treatment was associated with the efficacy of EEN (OR = 0.636; [CI] 95% = [0.444–0.912], P = 0.014). These associations were confirmed using the propensity score model. For patients with isolated colonic CD, multivariate analysis showed that pancolitis (OR = 16.7; [CI] 95% = [1.074–260.5], P = 0.044) was another independent factor for the efficacy of EEN. Further analysis showed that even in patients who achieved clinical remission after EEN, inflammatory serum markers declined more slowly in the cCD group than in the non-cCD group, and the time to remission was longer in the cCD group.Isolated colonic CD showed a reduced response to induction therapy with EEN compared with ileal or ileocolonic disease in adult patients. Patients with isolated colonic CD required more time to benefit from EEN therapy compared with patients with non-colonic CD. Additionally, LBMI before treatment was associated with the efficacy of EEN.