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Vitamin D levels are associated with metabolic syndrome in adolescents and young adults: The BCAMS study

Fu, Junling, Han, Lanwen, Zhao, Yanglu, Li, Ge, Zhu, Yingna, Li, Yu, Li, Ming, Gao, Shan, Willi, Steven M.
Clinical nutrition 2019 v.38 no.5 pp. 2161-2167
Chinese people, adolescents, at-risk population, body mass index, children, gender, glucose, glucose tolerance tests, insulin, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, metabolic syndrome, neck, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, nutrition risk assessment, obesity, odds ratio, triacylglycerols, vitamin D, vitamin D deficiency, young adults, youth, China
The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome (MS) remains controversial with relatively sparse data among youth. Therefore, we attempted to explicate the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels with MS in Chinese adolescents and young adults.A cohort of 559 subjects at elevated risk of MS were recruited at 14–28 years of age as a follow-up to the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Study. Subjects underwent clinical assessment including a 2h-oral glucose tolerance test. The concentrations of 25(OH)D, glucose, insulin and lipids were determined. MS was defined using the 2009 harmonized definition.The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/ml) was 78.3%. After adjusting for age, gender and season, 25(OH)D concentrations were negatively correlated with neck circumference, percent body fat, LDL cholesterol, fasting and 2h-glucose levels (all P < 0.05). 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in participants with obesity, high triglycerides, type 2 diabetes, or MS, compared to their respective counterparts (all P < 0.05). After adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., body mass index), participants in the lowest 25(OH)D tertile were 2.5 times more likely to exhibit MS than were those in the highest tertile (Odds Ratio: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.13–5.45, P < 0.05).Vitamin D deficiency was very common in this young Chinese population at risk for MS. Given this association between low vitamin D levels and MS, the role of vitamin D supplementation in Chinese youths needs further examination, particular in those at risk for MS.