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Feminization imprinted by developmental growth hormone

Banerjee, Sarmistha, Das, Rajat K., Shapiro, Bernard H.
Molecular and cellular endocrinology 2019 v.479 pp. 27-38
adults, cytochrome P-450, drugs, enzymes, females, feminization, liver, masculinization, neonates, rats, secretion, somatotropin
Previously, we identified early developmental exposure to growth hormone (GH) as the requisite organizer responsible for programming the masculinization of the hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP)-dependent drug metabolizing enzymes (Das et al., 2014, 2017). In spite of the generally held dogma that mammalian feminization requires no hormonal imprinting, numerous reports that the sex-dependent regulation and expression of hepatic CYPs in females are permanent and irreversible would suggest otherwise. Consequently, we selectively blocked GH secretion in a cohort of newborn female rats, some of whom received concurrent GH replacement or GH releasing factor. As adults, the feminine circulating GH profile was restored in the treated animals. Two categories of CYPs were measured. The principal and basically female specific CYP2C12 and CYP2C7; both completely and solely dependent on the adult feminine continuous GH profile for expression, and the female predominant CYP2C6 and CYP2E1 whose expression is maximum in the absence of plasma GH, suppressed by the feminine GH profile but more so by the masculine episodic GH profile. Our findings indicate that early developmental exposure to GH imprints the inchoate CYP2C12 and CYP2C7 in the differentiating liver to be solely dependent on the feminine GH profile for expression in the adult female. In contrast, adult expression of CYP2C6 and CYP2E1 in the female rat appears to require no GH imprinting.