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Wine production using free and immobilized kefir culture on natural supports

Nikolaou, Anastasios, Tsakiris, Argyrios, Kanellaki, Maria, Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia, Akrida-Demertzi, Konstantoula, Kourkoutas, Yiannis
Food chemistry 2019 v.272 pp. 39-48
acetic acid, acidity, ethanol, fermentation, kefir, malic acid, sensory evaluation, taint, temperature, vinegars, winemaking, wines
The aim of the present study was to perform simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic wine fermentations using free or immobilized kefir culture at a wide temperature range (5–45 °C). Repeated batch fermentations were carried out for a period up to 29 months, suggesting a high operational stability of the systems, while malic acid conversion and ethanol productivity up to 70.9% and 36.9 g/(Ld) were noted. Volatile acidity was at levels typically found in wines (<1.0 g acetic acid/L) in most cases, although increased values were recorded in wines produced at 5 °C, but no vinegar taint was detected. Fusel alcohols were at levels usually found in wines, but were reduced at 5 °C. Application of PCA to minor volatiles showed that the fermentation temperature rather than the nature of kefir culture had a significant effect. Noticeably, all products were accepted by the panel during the preliminary sensory evaluation.