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Wine production using free and immobilized kefir culture on natural supports
- Nikolaou, Anastasios, Tsakiris, Argyrios, Kanellaki, Maria, Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia, Akrida-Demertzi, Konstantoula, Kourkoutas, Yiannis
- Food chemistry 2019 v.272 pp. 39-48
- acetic acid, acidity, ethanol, fermentation, kefir, malic acid, sensory evaluation, taint, temperature, vinegars, winemaking, wines
- The aim of the present study was to perform simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic wine fermentations using free or immobilized kefir culture at a wide temperature range (5–45 °C). Repeated batch fermentations were carried out for a period up to 29 months, suggesting a high operational stability of the systems, while malic acid conversion and ethanol productivity up to 70.9% and 36.9 g/(Ld) were noted. Volatile acidity was at levels typically found in wines (<1.0 g acetic acid/L) in most cases, although increased values were recorded in wines produced at 5 °C, but no vinegar taint was detected. Fusel alcohols were at levels usually found in wines, but were reduced at 5 °C. Application of PCA to minor volatiles showed that the fermentation temperature rather than the nature of kefir culture had a significant effect. Noticeably, all products were accepted by the panel during the preliminary sensory evaluation.