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Efficacy of Aeschynomene indica L. leaves for wound healing and isolation of active constituent

Lei, Zhi-Yong, Chen, Jing-Jing, Cao, Zhi-Jian, Ao, Ming-Zhang, Yu, Long-Jiang
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2019 v.228 pp. 156-163
Aeschynomene indica, CCR7 receptor, Oriental traditional medicine, aerial parts, angiogenesis, appendages, collagen, conjunctivitis, dysentery, enteritis, eosin, excision, fibroblasts, hepatitis, immunohistochemistry, leaves, macrophages, models, ointments, phenotype, quantitative analysis, staining, tissue repair, transforming growth factor beta 1, urinary tract diseases, urticaria
In traditional Chinese medicine, the aerial parts of Aeschynomene indica L. (AIL) have been used for wound healing, and to treat urinary tract infection, hepatitis, enteritis, dysentery, nyctalopia, conjunctivitis, urticaria, and furuncle. However, no scientific investigation has been conducted on its wound healing potential.To investigate the effects of AIL extract on wound healing, isolate the active constituent and reveal the possible mechanism of enhancing wound healing.The circular excision wound healing model was used to evaluate in vivo wound-healing activity. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was applied to assess inflammatory cells infiltration, angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, collagen remodeling, and skin appendages generation. Sirius red-picric acid staining was employed for quantitative analysis of the ratio of collagen I/III. Immunohistochemical staining for CD68, CCR7 (CD197), CD163, TGF-β1 and α-SMA was performed to determine macrophages phenotypes transition (M1-to-M2) and prove the scar-improving effect of AIL on wound healing.We successfully isolated the active constituent (Sub-Fr0.2) for wound healing from AIL extract, circular excision wound healing experiment and hematoxylin & eosin staining showed Sub-Fr0.2 has a significant promoting effect on wound healing. Results of sirius red-picric acid staining demonstrated a reduced ratio of collagen I/III in the Sub-Fr0.2 group as compared with the vehicle group. Immunohistochemical staining for CD68, CCR7 (CD197), and CD163 in the Sub-Fr0.2 group exhibited an elevated speed of macrophages transiting from M1 phenotype to M2 phenotype, when compared with the vehicle group. Besides, the expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA were inhibited on wounds treated with the ointment containing Sub-Fr0.2.Leaves of AIL and its active constituent (Sub-Fr0.2) effectively promoted wound healing and reduced scar formation, this efficacy might be exerted by accelerating macrophages phenotypes transition and inhibiting TGF-β1 and α-SMA expression.