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Asian citrus psyllid stylet morphology and applicability to the model for inter-instar stylet replacement in the potato psyllid

Cicero, Joseph M., Alba-Tercedor, Javier, Hunter, Wayne B., Cano, Liliana M., Saha, S., Mueller, Lukas A., Brown, Susan J.
Arthropod structure & development 2018 v.47 no.5 pp. 542-551
Bactericera cockerelli, Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, Diaphorina citri, apolysis, arthropods, bacteria, ecdysis, greening disease, host plants, instars, integument, larvae, models, pathogens, snails, stylets, tissues
In Hemiptera, presumptive stylets for each consecutive postembryonic instar are manufactured prior to ecdysis to replace the ecdysial stylets discarded with the exuviae. With the discovery that the bacterium “Candidatus” Liberibacter solanacearum accesses the tissues involved in the stylet replacement process of the potato psyllid, a hypothesis was formed that the bacterium could adhere to the stylets of freshly emerged instars and hence gain access to the host plant when feeding is resumed. Although unproven, it was imperative that a model for stylet replacement be built. Stylet morphology and the stylet replacement process of the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), vector of “C.” L. asiaticus, causal pathogen of citrus greening disease, are comparable to the potato psyllid model system. Morphology consists of a basal terminus with its tab-shaped auricle, a base, shaft, and an apical terminus. Each of the four auricles act as a platform for the replacement apparatus, which is compacted into a tight aggregate of cells, the ‘end-cap’. As modeled, on apolysis of larval instar hypodermis, the aggregate ‘deconstructs’ and expands into a snail shell-shaped tube, the ‘atrium’, that houses the presumptive stylet as it is synthesized. Completed stylets then despool from the atrium and are fitted into their functional positions as the next instar emerges from its exuviae.