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Carotenoid and Tocochromanol Profiles during Kernel Development Make Consumption of Biofortified “Fresh” Maize an Option to Improve Micronutrient Nutrition

Cabrera-Soto, Luisa, Pixley, Kevin V., Rosales-Nolasco, Aldo, Galicia-Flores, Luis A., Palacios-Rojas, Natalia
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.36 pp. 9391-9398
filling period, Estimated Average Requirement, hybrids, lysine, malnutrition, zinc, biofortification, carotenes, corn, tryptophan, ingestion
Biofortification is a strategy to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of biofortified fresh maize can supply nutritionally meaningful amounts of provitamin A carotenoids (PVA), zinc, lysine, and tryptophan. The accumulation patterns for PVA and tocochromanol compounds in developing grain of 23 PVA hybrids was studied, and nutritionally meaningful amounts of those compounds were found in grain by milk stage, when fresh maize is eaten. The highest PVA and tocochromanol accumulation occurred by physiological maturity. The percent apparent retention in boiled fresh maize was 92%, 117%, 99%, and 66% for PVA, zinc, lysine, and tryptophan, respectively. Consumption of 0.5 to 2 ears of fresh maize daily could supply 33–62.2%, 11–24% and more than 85% of the estimated average requirement of PVA, tryptophan, and zinc, respectively. The results indicate that eating biofortified fresh maize can contribute to improved micronutrient nutrition.