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The response of process-based agro-ecosystem models to within-field variability in site conditions
- Wallor, Evelyn, Kersebaum, Kurt-Christian, Ventrella, Domenico, Bindi, Marco, Cammarano, Davide, Coucheney, Elsa, Gaiser, Thomas, Garofalo, Pasquale, Giglio, Luisa, Giola, Pietro, Hoffmann, Munir P., Iocola, Ileana, Lana, Marcos, Lewan, Elisabet, Maharjan, Ganga Ram, Moriondo, Marco, Mula, Laura, Nendel, Claas, Pohankova, Eva, Roggero, Pier Paolo, Trnka, Mirek, Trombi, Giacomo
- Field crops research 2018 v.228 pp. 1-19
- agroecosystems, algorithms, biomass, climate, climate change, crop management, crop yield, data collection, ecosystem services, food security, growing season, leaf area index, model validation, models, nitrogen, soil, water content, Germany, Italy
- Process-oriented agro-ecosystem models are increasingly applied to assess crop management options or impacts of climate change on agricultural production, food security and ecosystem services. Thereby, the aggregation of initial soil and climate information is a widely used approach for performing simulations at larger scales such as regions, nations or even globally. In this context, the ability of models to respond to different site conditions is essential for high quality impact assessment through the use of modelling tools. As part of a model inter-comparison the present study investigated models’ yield response on variable site conditions using data sets from two well-documented fields, one located in Germany and one in Italy. The fields were sampled at 60 and 100 grid points, respectively, and soil and crop variables were recorded at varying intensity for the entire simulation period covering three growing seasons. The data was provided successively to the participating modelling groups in three calibration steps (a, b, and c) and the first growing season was considered for calibration. Model validation was based on these steps and each growing season as well as on the entire simulation period considering the soil state variables mineral nitrogen and water content (N, WC) as well as crop yield, biomass, and leaf area index (LAI). The WC was best depicted by the models, resulting in high correlation coefficients (r) up to 0.81 between simulated and observed values. The root mean square error (RMSE) of simulated N ranged from 20 kg ha−1 to 1072 kg ha−1 regarding all steps and growing seasons. The annual within-field variability of yields was better simulated by the models when observed subsoil information was provided. However, the RMSE ranged from 0.5 t ha−1 to 3.5 t ha−1 at the German field, and from 0.6 t ha−1 to 5.9 t ha−1 at the Italian field, respectively. It was found that intensified calibration did not necessarily lead to improved model output. Furthermore, single models showed specific inconsistencies in their algorithms when, for example, underestimated WC was associated with overestimated yields. In total, the sensitivity of models to spatially variable site conditions differed considerably. The importance of quality-assured soil and yield information for model improvement was highlighted.