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Chronic inflammatory and degenerative endometrial lesions in subfertile Criollo Limonero cattle; a B. taurus Latin-American breed threatened with extinction; A case-control study

Palomares, Roberto A., Gutiérrez-Añez, Juan C., Zambrano, Sunny, Boscan-Ocando, Julio C., Montero, Merilio, Camacho, Jesús, Perea-Ganchou, Fernando P., Ferrer, Maria S., Rodríguez-Márquez, Jose M., Portillo-Martinez, German, Muñoz, Rafaela J., Godoy, Rosario
Animal reproduction science 2018 v.197 pp. 22-32
animal ovaries, beef, biopsy, case-control studies, clinical examination, colposcopy, cows, endometritis, endometrium, extinction, fibrosis, heifers, histopathology, milk, ovarian cysts, repeat breeder, reproductive performance, secretion, tropics
Criollo Limonero is a tropical Bos taurus breed for sustainable dual purpose (milk and beef) production in the South-American tropics, which is currently threatened with extinction. The objective was to perform a clinical evaluation and histopathological assessment of uterine biopsy samples of repeat breeder (RB) Criollo Limonero cattle to determine the occurrence of pathological conditions as potential causes of subfertility. Twenty-four Criollo Limonero cattle [18 cows (5–13 years old) and 6 heifers (6–7.5 years old)] that had failed to conceive after four or more services were considered for this study. Additionally, five cows with history of adequate reproductive performance were used as a control group. Animals were submitted to physical exam, vaginoscopy, and ultrasonographical evaluation of the reproductive tract. Uterine biopsy samples were collected for histopathological evaluation. Vaginoscopy revealed that 41.7% of the RB cattle had abnormal vaginal secretions, while abnormal secretions were not observed in any control cow. Ultrasonographical examination of the uterus revealed the presence of free uterine fluid in 20.8% of the RB animals, while none of the control cows had fluid in the uterine lumen. In addition, ovarian cysts were observed in 25.0% of the RB animals. Histopathological evaluation of the endometrial biopsies revealed that mononuclear leukocyte infiltration, dilated uterine glands, and periglandular fibrosis were the most prevalent lesions in the sub-fertile animals. Chronic endometritis characterized by inflammatory (mononuclear leukocyte infiltration) and degenerative (dilated glands and periglandular fibrosis) endometrial lesions, and ovarian cysts were the most frequent reproductive pathologies observed in the studied subfertile Criollo Limonero cattle, suggesting a strong association with their reduced fertility.