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Meiotic chromosomal recombination defect in sake yeasts

Shimoi, Hitoshi, Hanazumi, Yuta, Kawamura, Natsuki, Yamada, Miwa, Shimizu, Shohei, Suzuki, Taro, Watanabe, Daisuke, Akao, Takeshi
Journal of bioscience and bioengineering 2019 v.127 no.2 pp. 190-196
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, asci, chromosome elimination, chromosomes, genome, haploidy, heterozygosity, hybridization, meiosis, rapamycin, sake, spores, sporulation, yeasts
Sake yeast strains are classified into Saccharomyces cerevisiae and have a heterothallic life cycle. This feature allows cross hybridization between two haploids to breed new strains with superior characteristics. However, cross hybridization of sake yeast is very difficult because only a few spores develop in a sporulation medium, and most of these spores do not germinate. We hypothesized that these features are attributable to chromosome recombination defect in meiosis, which leads to chromosome loss. To test this hypothesis, we examined meiotic recombination of sake yeast Kyokai no. 7 (K7) using the following three methods: (i) analysis of the segregation patterns of two heterozygous sites in the same chromosome in 100 haploid K7 strains; (ii) sequencing of the whole genomes of four haploid K7 strains and comparison of the bases derived from the heterozygosities; and (iii) construction of double heterozygous disruptants of CAN1 and URA3 on the chromosome V of K7 and the examination of the genotypes of haploids after sporulation. We could not detect any recombinant segregants in any of the experiments, which indicated defect in meiotic recombination in K7. Analyses after sporulation of the same double heterozygous disruptants of K6, K9, and K10 also indicated meiotic recombination defect in these strains. Although rapamycin treatment increased the sporulation efficiency of K7, it did not increase the meiotic recombination of the double heterozygous K7. Moreover, the spo13 disruptant of the K7 derivative produced two spore asci without meiotic recombination. These results suggest that sake yeasts have defects in meiotic recombination machinery.