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Differential secretome profiling of a swine tracheal cell line infected with mycoplasmas of the swine respiratory tract

Leal Zimmer, Fernanda Munhoz dos Anjos, Paludo, Gabriela Prado, Moura, Hercules, Barr, John R., Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer
Journal of proteomics 2019 v.192 pp. 147-159
Mycoplasma flocculare, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, adhesins, antibiotics, avirulent strains, bacteria, cell death, cell lines, death, enzootic diseases, financial economics, host-pathogen relationships, liquid chromatography, pneumonia, proteasome endopeptidase complex, protein secretion, respiratory system, swine, tandem mass spectrometry, virulence, virulent strains, weight loss
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare are genetically similar. However, M. hyopneumoniae causes porcine enzootic pneumonia, while M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare do not penetrate their host cells, and secreted proteins are important for bacterium-host interplay. Thus, the secretomes of a swine trachea cell line (NPTr) infected with M. hyopneumoniae 7448 (a pathogenic strain), M. hyopneumoniae J (a non-pathogenic strain) and M. flocculare were compared to shed light in bacterium-host interactions. Medium from the cultures was collected, and secreted proteins were identified by a LC-MS/MS. Overall numbers of identified host and bacterial proteins were, respectively, 488 and 58, for NPTr/M. hyopneumoniae 7448; 371 and 67, for NPTr/M. hyopneumoniae J; and 203 and 81, for NPTr/M. flocculare. The swine cells revealed different secretion profiles in response to the infection with each M. hyopneumoniae strain or with M. flocculare. DAMPs and extracellular proteasome proteins, secreted in response to cell injury and death, were secreted by NPTr cells infected with M. hyopneumoniae 7448. All three mycoplasmas secreted virulence factors during NPTr infection, but M. hyopneumoniae 7448 secreted higher number of adhesins and hypothetical proteins, that may be related with pathogenicity.The enzootic pneumonia caused by mycoplasmas of swine respiratory tract has economic loss consequences in pig industry due to antibiotic costs and pig weight loss. However, some genetically similar mycoplasmas are pathogenic while others, such as Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare, are non-pathogenic. Here, we conducted an infection assay between swine cells and pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycoplasmas to decipher secreted proteins during host-pathogen interaction. Mycoplasma response to cell infection was also observed. Our study provided new insights on secretion profile of swine cells in response to the infection with pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycoplasmas. It was possible to observe that pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae 7448 secreted known virulence factors and swine cells responded by inducing cell death. Otherwise, M. hyopneumoniae J and M. flocculare, non-pathogenic mycoplasmas, secreted a different profile of virulence factors in response to swine cells. Consequently, swine cells altered their secretome profile, but the changes were not sufficient to cause disease.