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Porcine epidemic diarrhea vaccine evaluation using a newly isolated strain from Korea

Park, Jung-Eun, Kang, Ki-Jong, Ryu, Ji-Hoon, Park, Jae-Yeon, Jang, Hyun, Sung, Da-Jung, Kang, Jae-Gu, Shin, Hyun-Jin
Veterinary microbiology 2018 v.221 pp. 19-26
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, antibodies, blood serum, colostrum, diarrhea, economic impact, genes, inactivated vaccines, neutralization, phylogeny, piglets, pork industry, progeny, sows, suckling, survival rate, vaccine development, viral growth, virulence, vomiting, South Korea, United States
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infects pigs and causes an enteric disease that is characterized by vomiting and watery diarrhea. PEDV outbreaks have a tremendous financial impact on the worldwide pork industry. In South Korea, the incidence of PEDV has continued despite nationwide use of attenuated and inactivated vaccines, raising questions regarding the current vaccines’ efficacy and the need for new vaccine development. In the present study, we isolated a new Korean PEDV epidemic strain, PED-CUP-B2014, in Vero cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the spike gene demonstrated that the PED-CUP-B2014 belongs in genogroup G2b and is close to PEDVs currently circulating in many countries including the United States, and is distinct from many current vaccine strains. Upon serial passages into Vero cells, PED-CUP-B2014 adapted to Vero cells, which was evidenced as higher virus growth in Vero cells and confirmed lower virulence in suckling piglets. The administration of the inactivated 65-passaged PED-CUP-B2014 to sows greatly increased the survival rate of their offspring and significantly reduced diarrhea severity after PEDV challenge. Higher serum/colostrum PEDV-specific antibodies and higher neutralizing titers were shown in sows vaccinated with PED-CUP-B2014 compared to unvaccinated sows or sows administered commercial PEDV vaccine. Altogether, our data demonstrated that the newly isolated PEDV strain conferred critical passive immune protection to pigs against epidemic PEDV infection.