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The cosmetic potential of plants from the Eastern Cape Province traditionally used for skincare and beauty

Thibane, V.S., Ndhlala, A.R., Abdelgadir, H.A., Finnie, J.F., Van Staden, J.
South African journal of botany 2019 v.122 pp. 475-483
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Acokanthera, Aloe ferox, Arctotis, Cassipourea, Clausena anisata, Ilex, Nasturtium officinale, Plantago lanceolata, Symphytum officinale, Urtica urens, antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity, beta-carotene, enzyme activity, ethanol, hygiene, inhibitory concentration 50, keratinophilic fungi, linoleic acid, medicinal plants, methanol, methylene chloride, minimum inhibitory concentration, models, oxidation, petroleum, sanitizers, soaps, sunscreens, ultraviolet radiation
Cosmetic products are directly and indirectly applied to the skin in order to enhance its beauty. Cosmetic products that are directly applied to the skin include creams, lotions and soaps while tablets and supplements are indirectly administered to achieve similar benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate the cosmetic potential of plants from the Eastern Cape Province used traditionally for skincare and beauty by evaluating their antimicrobial activity, antioxidant potential, photo-protective effect and anti-tyrosinase activity. The antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane (DCM), 70% aqueous ethanol (v/v) and water extracts was tested against infectious skin microorganisms and skin dermatophytes. Methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were tested for their DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and their ability to delay the oxidation of β-carotene in the β-carotene linoleic acid model. Ethanol extracts of medicinal plants were tested for their photo-protective effects and anti-tyrosinase activity. Ethanol extracts of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f.) O.Hoffm and Cassipourea flanaganii (Schinz) Alston were very potent against all infectious skin microorganisms and skin dermatophytes included in the study with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values less than 1 mg/mL. Methanol extracts of C. flanaganii, Symphytum officinale L and Urtica urens L showed high antioxidant potential. Ethanol extracts from Plantago lanceolata L., C. flanaganii, Acokanthera oblongifolia (Hochst.) Codd, Ilex mitis (L.) Radlk., A. arctotoides and Aloe ferox Mill expressed moderate protection against ultraviolet (UV) radiation with sun protection factor (SPF) values between 12 and 30. Furthermore, extracts from Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek, Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex Benth., S. officinale and C. flanaganii showed good anti-tyrosinase activity similar to the positive control with IC50 values between 19.64 and 22.24 μg/mL. The results from the study have shown that extracts from A. arctotoides and C. flanaganii have potential for incorporation into hygiene products such as soaps, creams and sanitizers due to their potential to combat a range of microorganisms. Furthermore, extracts from C. flanaganii, S. officinale and P. lanceolata have potential for incorporation into beauty creams and sunscreen products.