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Metabolic support challenges with obesity during critical illness

Dickerson, Roland N.
Nutrition 2019 v.57 pp. 24-31
chronic diseases, diet therapy, monitoring, nutrition risk assessment, obesity, overfeeding, patients, protein synthesis, risk reduction
Adiposity-based chronic disease, critical illness, and nutrition therapy increase the risk for overfeeding and worsened nutritional and clinical outcomes. Hypocaloric, high-protein nutrition therapy provides critically ill obese patients the opportunity to achieve net protein anabolism with a reduced risk for overfeeding-related complications. The intent of this review is to discuss the impact of obesity on clinical outcomes, describe the consequences of obesity that increase complications associated with nutrition therapy, provide the framework to develop a hypocaloric, high-protein regimen, review the scientific evidence to support this mode of therapy, and discuss its limitations. Practical suggestions for patient monitoring are also provided.