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Correlation between hormonal homeostasis and morphogenic responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings growing in a Cd/Cu/Zn multi‐pollution context

Sofo, Adriano, Vitti, Antonella, Nuzzaci, Maria, Tataranni, Giuseppe, Scopa, Antonio, Vangronsveld, Jaco, Remans, Tony, Falasca, Giuseppina, Altamura, Maria M., Degola, Francesca, Sanità di Toppi, Luigi
Physiologia plantarum 2013 v.149 no.4 pp. 487-498
Arabidopsis thaliana, RNA interference, abscisic acid, bioaccumulation, biosynthesis, cadmium, copper, correlation, cytokinins, dihydrozeatin, genes, gibberellic acid, glutathione, homeostasis, hormonal regulation, in vitro studies, indole acetic acid, microscopy, morphogenesis, phytochelatins, plant morphology, plant response, pollution, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, rooting, roots, seedlings, shoots, transcription (genetics), zeatin, zinc
To date, almost no information is available in roots and shoots of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana about the hierarchic relationship between metal accumulation, phytohormone levels, and glutathione/phytochelatin content, and how this relation affects root development. For this purpose, specific concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc, alone or in triple combination, were supplied for 12 days to in vitro growing seedlings. The accumulation of these metals was measured in roots and shoots, and a significant competition in metal uptake was observed. Microscopic analyses revealed that root morphology was affected by metal exposure, and that the levels of trans‐zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin riboside, indole‐3‐acetic acid and the auxin/cytokinin ratio varied accordingly. By contrast, under metal treatments, minor modifications in gibberellic acid and abscisic acid levels occurred. Real‐time polymerase chain reaction analysis of some genes involved in auxin and cytokinin synthesis (e.g. AtNIT in roots and AtIPT in shoots) showed on average a metal up‐regulated transcription. The production of thiol‐peptides was induced by all the metals, alone or in combination, and the expression of the genes involved in thiol‐peptide synthesis (AtGSH1, AtGSH2, AtPCS1 and AtPCS2) was not stimulated by the metals, suggesting a full post‐transcriptional control. Results show that the Cd/Cu/Zn‐induced changes in root morphology are caused by a hormonal unbalance, mainly governed by the auxin/cytokinin ratio.