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iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals dynamic changes during daylily flower senescence

Ma, Guangying, Shi, Xiaohua, Zou, Qingcheng, Tian, Danqing, An, Xia, Zhu, Kaiyuan
Planta 2018 v.248 no.4 pp. 859-873
beta-fructofuranosidase, biochemical pathways, circadian rhythm, flowering, galactose, glucose, longevity, pentoses, peptides, protein synthesis, proteinases, proteome, proteomics, ribosomal proteins, starch, sucrose
MAIN CONCLUSION: Sugar-related metabolic biological processes and metabolic pathways as well as invertase, protease, and ribosomal proteins may be critical regulators controlling the circadian rhythm and ephemeral properties of daylily flowers. Daylily is a familiar perennial flower. The daylily flower opens at dawn and withers away at night. Flower longevity in almost all daylily varieties from opening to fading is less than 24 h. In the past decades, the physiological changes and genetic responses to senescence in daylily flowers have been reported. However, the main metabolic pathways and biological processes involved in daylily flower senescence and the proteins involved in premature senility of daylily flowers are poorly understood. Herein, we identified differences between the proteomes of four developmental stages (s1–s4) of daylily flowers using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic methods. A total of 445 proteins (containing at least two unique peptides) were identified, and differentially expressed proteins (upregulation ≥ 1.5 or downregulation ≤ 0.67, P value ≤ 0.05) were detected between these stages in the following numbers: 58 (s2/s1), 59 (s3/s1), 31 (s3/s2), 64 (s4/s1), 52 (s4/s2), and 29 (s4/s3). Protein functions and classifications were analyzed based on GO, KEGG, and COG, and expressive hierarchical cluster analysis and functional enrichment analysis for differentially expressed proteins were carried out. A comparison of the late stages (s3 and s4) with the early stage (s1) revealed that the sugar (hexose, monosaccharide, and glucose) metabolic process GO category was the most enriched, and sugar (galactose, pentose, starch, and sucrose) metabolism pathways constituted the most enriched KEGG category. Finally, the potential research value of invertase, protease, and ribosomal proteins for revealing the mechanism underlying the circadian rhythm and ephemeral properties of daylily flowers are discussed. These data and analyses provide new insight into the senescence mechanism of daylily flowers.