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Can porous polymeric scaffolds be functionalized by stem cells leading to osteogenic differentiation? A systematic review of in vitro studies

de Oliveira, Natacha Kalline, Miguita, Lucyene, Salles, Tais Helena Costa, d’Ávila, Marcos Akira, Marques, Márcia Martins, Deboni, Maria Cristina Zindel
Journal of materials science 2018 v.53 no.23 pp. 15757-15768
biocompatible materials, bone formation, cell proliferation, cell viability, coculture, databases, humans, in vitro studies, nanopores, porosity, qualitative analysis, stem cells, systematic review
The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of nanoporous structure of polymeric biomaterials on the in vitro osteogenic induction of human stem cells. An electronic search in three databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and Web of Science) was performed for articles that were published before May 2018. In vitro studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) the use of polymeric scaffolds (natural or synthetic); (2) the co-culture of human stem cells with the scaffold; and (3) cell viability, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation assays. The main characteristics of the published studies were summarized, and a quality assessment tool was used to analyze methodological features. Eighty-eight potential articles were firstly retrieved. Thirteen were eligible for qualitative analysis. Only three studies characterized cell stemness. Nanostructure of the scaffolds showed a significant influence on viability, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human stem cells. Combination of porosity between 72 and 93% and a large range diameter between 50 and 224 μm resulted in more remarkable cellular proliferation and differentiation. Porous polymeric scaffolds can be functionalized by stem cells leading to osteogenic induction. High standards of laboratory practice and accurate methodological reporting are essential for the credibility of the results.