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Efficacy of Leaf Oil from Pimenta racemosa var. racemosa in Controlling Bacterial Wilt of Tomato
- Deberdt, Péninna, Davezies, Isabelle, Coranson-Beaudu, Régine, Jestin, Alexandra
- Plant disease 2018 v.102 no.1 pp. 124-131
- Cymbopogon, Ralstonia solanacearum, anise, antibacterial properties, bacterial wilt, biofumigation, chemotypes, essential oils, greenhouse experimentation, greenhouses, in vitro culture, in vivo studies, minimum inhibitory concentration, phylotype, soil, tomatoes, Caribbean
- Bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is a major plant disease throughout the Caribbean. The ability of the essential oil from Pimenta racemosa var. racemosa to control bacterial wilt of tomato (R. solanacearum, phylotype IIB/4NPB) was investigated. Lemongrass (chemotype 1)-, aniseed (chemotype 2)-, and clove (chemotype 3)-scented chemotypes of P. racemosa var. racemosa essential oil were tested. Six concentrations of emulsified essential oil (from 0.01 to 0.14% [v/v]) were evaluated by in vitro culture amendment assays and by in vivo experiments in greenhouse. Chemotype 3 displayed remarkable in vitro antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum, because the minimum inhibitory concentration was only 0.03%, compared with 0.14% for chemotypes 1 and 2. In greenhouse experiments, no incidence of bacterial wilt was observed in tomato plants grown in soil treated with chemotype 3 of P. racemosa var. racemosa at a concentration of 0.14%. In the untreated control soil, 62% of plants displayed symptoms of bacterial wilt. Treatment with chemotype 3 significantly increased the growth of tomato plants compared with untreated controls. These results suggest that chemotype 3 of P. racemosa var. racemosa essential oil is a good candidate for further development as a soil biofumigant for the control of tomato bacterial wilt.