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First Report of Arabis Mosaic Virus in Rhubarb in Poland

Komorowska, B., Ptaszek, M., Jarecka-Boncela, A., Hasiów-Jaroszewska, B.
Plant disease 2018 v.102 no.9 pp. 1863
plant viruses, diagnostic techniques, vegetative propagation, Turnip mosaic virus, genes, rhubarb, Arabis mosaic virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, Ligustrum vulgare, plant diseases and disorders, vigor, antibodies, acreage, amino acids, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, viruses, mixed infection, Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus, coat proteins, Tobacco ringspot virus, plant growth, silica, Tomato black ring virus, discoloration, leaf blade, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Rheum rhabarbarum, RNA, Cucumber mosaic virus, Poland
In recent years, rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) has become increasingly popular in Poland, but its cultivation is mainly concentrated in small to middle acreage (up to 5 ha) organic farms. Rhubarb is a vegetatively propagated perennial, and viruses can affect it at any stage of growth, causing yield losses owing to abnormal plant growth, loss of vigor, or leaf discoloration. In July 2017, chlorotic and necrotic mottle, red lesions, and wrinkling of the leaf blade were observed on leaves of rhubarb plants in commercial plantings in southeast Poland. Samples were taken from 10 symptomatic and four asymptomatic plants and were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with commercially available antibodies against arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) (Agdia, Elkhart, IN), turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (LOEWE Biochemica, Sauerlach, Germany), and tomato black ring virus (TBRV) (DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany). The presence of ArMV was confirmed in two plants exhibiting foliar chlorotic mottle, one of which was coinfected with TBRV. All 14 samples tested negative for TuMV, CMV, TMV, TRSV, and TSWV. To confirm the presence of ArMV, total nucleic acids were extracted from rhubarb leaves using a silica capture method (Boom et al. 1990) and subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with the Transcriptor One-Step RT-PCR kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) and primers specific to the ArMV coat protein gene located on RNA 2 (Gao et al. 2016). A PCR product of the expected 1,515-bp size was amplified from the two ArMV-infected plants and sequenced in both directions at Genomed, Warsaw, Poland. No amplification products were obtained from asymptomatic plants. Sequencing results of the PCR products confirmed that two plants were infected with ArMV. The sequences of two ArMV isolates from rhubarb (GenBank accession nos. MG882691 and MG882692) shared 88.6 and 93.1% nucleotide and amino acid identity, respectively, and high identities with other ArMV isolates, including GenBank accession numbers EU617327 from Ligustrum vulgare and KJ481199 from narcissus with up to 92% nucleotide identity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ArMV in rhubarb in Poland.