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Grazing, forest density, and carbon storage: towards a more sustainable land use in Caatinga dry forests of Brazil
- Schulz, Katharina, Guschal, Maike, Kowarik, Ingo, Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S., Sampaio, Everardo V. S. B., Cierjacks, Arne
- Regional environmental change 2018 v.18 no.7 pp. 1969-1981
- altitude, anthropogenic activities, caatinga, carbon sequestration, carbon sinks, dry forests, ecological function, ecosystems, forage, grazing intensity, herbs, land use, livestock, plant density, population structure, range management, semiarid zones, shrubs, sustainable land management, trees, woody plants, Brazil
- Grazing is the main land use in semi-arid regions of the world, and sustainable management practices are urgently needed to prevent their degradation. However, how different grazing intensities affect forest density and ecosystem functions is often not sufficiently understood to allow for management adaptations that safeguard the ecosystems and their functions in the long run. We assessed the aboveground carbon stocks and plant densities along a grazing gradient in the semi-arid seasonally dry tropical forest of north-eastern Brazil (Caatinga). On 45 study plots, we analysed the aboveground carbon stocks of the vegetation and determined forest density and recruitment as well as the population structure of the most abundant tree species. Grazing intensity was accounted for based on the weight of livestock droppings and classified as low, intermediate, or high. Mean aboveground carbon stock was 15.74 ± 1.92 Mg ha⁻¹ with trees and shrubs accounting for 89% of the total amount. Grazing at high intensities significantly reduced aboveground carbon stocks of herbs but not of other plant functional types. Instead, aboveground carbon stocks of trees and shrubs were negatively related to altitude above sea level, which is a proxy for reduced water availability along with lower anthropogenic impact. The population structure of the most common tree species was characterised by abundant recruitment, irrespective of grazing, whereas the recruitment of less frequent woody species was negatively affected by grazing. Overall, our data imply that grazing and forage management need to be adapted, including the reduction of free-roaming livestock and storage of fodder, to maintain carbon storage and forest density.