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The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys
- Cha, Ra Mi, Yu, Qingzhong, Zsak, Laszlo
- Virology journal 2013 v.10 no.1 pp. 2004
- Avian metapneumovirus, Branta canadensis, RNA, antibodies, antibody formation, cell culture, chickens, fibroblasts, genes, glycoproteins, immunohistochemistry, nose, nucleotide sequences, respiratory tract diseases, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, specific pathogen-free animals, trachea (vertebrates), turkeys, virulence, virus replication, viruses
- BACKGROUND: Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. METHODS: In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC) and Canada geese (CG) were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF) turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. RESULTS: Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.