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Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Using Limonene as Greener Alternative for Grape Seeds Extraction, Followed by GC-MS Analysis for Varietal Fatty Acid Profiling
- Rubio, Laura, Lamas, Juan Pablo, Lores, Marta, Garcia-Jares, Carmen
- Food analytical methods 2018 v.11 no.11 pp. 3235-3242
- Vitis vinifera, bioactive compounds, cultivars, distillation, experimental design, fatty acid composition, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, grape seeds, grapes, hybrids, lactic acid, limonene, linoleic acid, oils, seed extracts, seeds, solid phase extraction, solvents, wastes
- In this work, matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is proposed for the first time as an efficient and rapid alternative to extract fatty acids (FAs) from grape seeds. In addition, the use of green solvents as limonene allowed obtaining similar yields to other longer extraction procedures using more unhealthy solvents. The optimization of the MSPD procedure was performed using experimental design strategies and considering the use of solvents such as ethyl lactate and limonene with interesting possibilities for the extraction of bioactive compounds from natural sources. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the seed extracts. The MSPD-GC-MS method was applied to characterize the FA profile of 27 seed samples from grapes belonging to Vitis vinifera white cultivars (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, Treixadura, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, and Pinot gris); a red cultivar (Mencía); a teinturier cultivar (Alicante Bouschet); and two hybrids producing white and rose grapes, respectively. Results showed that unsaturated FAs represented 82% of the total, with linoleic being the main acid (73.7%). The content of saturated FAs was 12.5%. Despite slight differences between cultivars, quite similar profiles were obtained independently of the cultivar, the type of sample (fresh grapes or distillation wastes), and the collection year, which is a very interesting conclusion for a potential exploitation of seeds as a source of good-quality oil. A simple technique such as MSPD using limonene as extraction solvent constituted an efficient and greener alternative for the extraction of grape seed FAs.