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A scoping review of Chikungunya virus infection: epidemiology, clinical characteristics, viral co-circulation complications, and control
- Silva, José V.J., Ludwig-Begall, Louisa F., Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F. de, Oliveira, Renato A.S., Durães-Carvalho, Ricardo, Lopes, Thaísa R.R., Silva, Daisy E.A., Gil, Laura H.V.G.
- Acta tropica 2018 v.188 pp. 213-224
- Chikungunya fever, Chikungunya virus, dengue, disease outbreaks, fever, vaccines, viruses, Caribbean, North America, South America, Tanzania
- Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne viral illness characterized by a sudden onset of fever associated with joint pains. It was first described in the 1950s during a Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak in southern Tanzania and has since (re-) emerged and spread to several other geographical areas, reaching large populations and causing massive epidemics. In recent years, CHIKV has gained considerable attention due to its quick spread to the Caribbean and then in the Americas, with many cases reported between 2014 and 2017. CHIKV has further garnered attention due to the clinical diagnostic difficulties when Zika (ZIKV) and dengue (DENV) viruses are simultaneously present. In this review, topical CHIKV-related issues, such as epidemiology and transmission, are examined. The different manifestations of infection (acute, chronic and atypical) are described and a particular focus is placed upon the diagnostic handling in the case of ZIKV and DENV co-circulating. Natural and synthetic compounds under evaluation for treatment of chikungunya disease, including drugs already licensed for other purposes, are also discussed. Finally, previous and current vaccine strategies, as well as the control of the CHIKV transmission through an integrated vector management, are reviewed in some detail.