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Assessment of the ecotoxicological impact of natural and synthetic β-triketone herbicides on the diversity and activity of the soil bacterial community using omic approaches

Romdhane, Sana, Devers-Lamrani, Marion, Beguet, Jérémie, Bertrand, Cédric, Calvayrac, Christophe, Salvia, Marie-Virginie, Jrad, Amani Ben, Dayan, Franck E., Spor, Aymé, Barthelmebs, Lise, Martin-Laurent, Fabrice
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.651 pp. 241-249
biomarkers, ecotoxicology, genes, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, metabolites, metabolomics, monitoring, ribosomal RNA, soil, soil bacteria, soil ecology, sulcotrione
The emergence of pesticides of natural origin appears as an environmental-friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides for managing weeds. To verify this assumption, leptospermone, a natural β-triketone herbicide, and sulcotrione, a synthetic one, were applied to soil microcosms at 0× (control), 1× or 10× recommended field dose. The fate of these two herbicides (i.e. dissipation and formation of transformation products) was monitored to assess the scenario of exposure of soil microorganisms to natural and synthetic herbicides. Ecotoxicological impact of both herbicides was explored by monitoring soil bacterial diversity and activity using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and soil metabolomics. Both leptospermone and sulcotrione fully dissipated over the incubation period. During their dissipation, transformation products of natural and synthetic β-triketone were detected. Hydroxy-leptospermone was almost completely dissipated by the end of the experiment, while CMBA, the major metabolite of sulcotrione, remained in soil microcosms. After 8 days of exposure, the diversity and structure of the soil bacterial community treated with leptospermone was significantly modified, while less significant changes were observed for sulcotrione. For both herbicides, the diversity of the soil bacterial community was still not completely recovered by the end of the experiment (45 days). The combined use of next-generation sequencing and metabolomic approaches allowed us to assess the ecotoxicological impact of natural and synthetic pesticides on non-target soil microorganisms and to detect potential biomarkers of soil exposure to β-triketones.