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Investigating the effects of design and management factors on DBPs levels in indoor aquatic centres
- Saleem, Sana, Dyck, Roberta, Hu, Guangji, Hewage, Kasun, Rodriguez, Manuel, Sadiq, Rehan
- The Science of the total environment 2019 v.651 pp. 775-786
- absorbance, air, alkalinity, basins, byproducts, disinfection, hardness, human health, models, pH, redox potential, regression analysis, risk, sprayers, swimming, swimming pools, tap water, temperature, ultraviolet radiation, water treatment
- Disinfection by-products (DBPs) in indoor swimming pool water and air have long been a critical human health risk concern. This study investigated the effects of several indoor swimming pool design and management factors (e.g. ventilation, water treatment, pool operations, pool type) on the concentrations of DBPs, such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and chloramines, in pool water and air. Two sampling campaigns, A and B, were carried out to measure the concentrations of DBPs under different conditions. In both campaigns, 46 pool water samples, seven tap water samples, and 28 ambient air samples were collected and analyzed. Regression models were also developed and validated for investigating the combined effects of design and management factors on total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and trichloramine. The model results show that pool water characteristics (e.g., total organic content, temperature, conductivity, pH and alkalinity) and management factors (e.g., the number of bathers and sprayers) have direct effects on DBP concentrations. Pool water characteristics such as UV absorbance, hardness, and oxidation-reduction potential and a management factor UV intensity have inverse effects on DBPs levels. Based on the correlation analysis, other factors such as fan speed, fresh air, pool age, and basin area were found to be correlated with the concentrations of individual THMs and trichloramine in both water and air. It was also observed that the concentration of THMs varies with pool type. It is note worthy that the effects of the number of sprayers was quantified for the first time. This study comprehensively assessed pool design and management factors and identified their effects on DBPs, providing indoor swimming pool facilities with useful information to control DBPs in the indoor swimming environment.