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Urinary phthalate metabolites in relation to childhood asthmatic and allergic symptoms in Shanghai
- Shi, Wenming, Lin, Zhijing, Liao, Chenxi, Zhang, Jialing, Liu, Wei, Wang, Xueying, Cai, Jiao, Zou, Zhijun, Wang, Heng, Norback, Dan, Kan, Haidong, Huang, Chen, Zhao, Zhuohui
- Environment international 2018 v.121 pp. 276-286
- Chinese people, adverse effects, asthma, childhood, children, confidence interval, demographic statistics, eczema, high performance liquid chromatography, metabolites, molecular weight, phthalates, questionnaires, regression analysis, rhinitis, tandem mass spectrometry, urine, China
- Few studies can be found on phthalate exposure in relation to childhood asthma and allergic symptoms from Mainland China, where a persistent increase in prevalence of childhood asthma and allergic disease has been observed.This study aimed to assess the exposure levels to phthalates and its relationship with asthmatic and allergic symptoms among children in Shanghai, which has the highest prevalence of childhood asthma in Mainland China.A follow-up study (2013–2014) of 434 children aged 5–10 years was conducted, based on the China, Children, Homes, Health (CCHH) study (2011−2012) in Shanghai, China. Information on asthmatic and allergic symptoms (wheeze, rhinitis, and eczema) were collected using validated questionnaires. Ten phthalate metabolites in morning urine samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between symptoms and urinary phthalate metabolites controlling for demographics, family history of allergic diseases and other covariates.Nine out of 10 phthalate metabolites were detected in all subjects (average detection rate of 93.2%). By multivariable logistic regression analyses, the 4th quartile of Mono‑n‑butyl phthalate (MnBP) (reference: 1st quartile) had adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPORS) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of 2.27(1.06–4.88), 2.14(1.02–4.46) and 2.98(1.19–7.50) for wheeze, rhinitis and eczema, respectively, while those of Mono‑isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) were 2.23(1.08–4.62) and 2.96(1.02–8.60) for rhinitis and eczema, respectively. The highest quartile of mono‑2‑ethyl‑5‑hydroxyhexyl phthalate(MEHHP) and mono‑2‑ethyl‑5‑oxohexyl phthalate(MEOHP) had aPORS and 95%CIs of 3.10(1.10–8.74) and 2.63(1.02–6.80) for eczema, respectively. By summing up the 4 low molecular weight metabolites (∑4LMWP) and all 9 metabolites (∑9Total), the highest quartiles of ∑4LMWP and∑9Total were significantly associated with all symptoms. In most of the above associations, a significantly increasing trend from the 1st to the 4th quartile was observed. Subjects with 2 or 3 concomitant symptoms (reference: no symptoms) had significant positive associations with a higher level (the 4th quartile) of phthalate metabolites.Low MW metabolites such as MnBP and MiBP, high MW DEHP and the total amount of phthalate metabolites might have adverse health effects on asthma and allergic symptoms in Chinese children.