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Yeast distribution in Grignolino grapes growing in a new vineyard in Piedmont and the technological characterization of indigenous Saccharomyces spp. strains

Vaudano, Enrico, Quinterno, Giorgia, Costantini, Antonella, Pulcini, Laura, Pessione, Enrica, Garcia-Moruno, Emilia
International journal of food microbiology 2019 v.289 pp. 154-161
Candida californica, Candida zemplinina, Cryptococcus flavescens, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation, grapes, piedmont, pullulan, vineyards, wines, yeasts, Italy
The aim of this study was to characterize the yeast consortium isolated from Grignolino grapes in a newly planted vineyard in Piedmont (Italy) via analysis of the intra-vineyard yeast distribution of grape samples from single rows. A two-phase approach allowed the identification of culturable yeasts present on grape skins and, through an enriching procedure via grape fermentation, the isolation of low frequency non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces spp. fermentative species, including S. paradoxus, which is highly unusual during grape fermentation, along with the intra-specific characterization of S. cerevisiae isolates. Culture-based molecular techniques revealed a grape yeast microbiota formed by (in order of abundance) Hanseniaspora uvarum, the yeast-like fungus Aerobasidium pullulans, Candida zemplinina, Pichia kluyveri, Candida californica, Curvibasidium cygneicollum, Meyerozima caribbica, Rhodotorula babjevae, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Cryptococcus flavescens. Technological properties of isolated Saccharomyces spp. strains were analysed, identifying strains, including S. paradoxus, potentially suitable as an ecotypical starter for territorial wines.