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Net emergence of substitutions at position 28 in NS5A of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 in patients failing direct-acting antivirals detected by next-generation sequencing

Nguyen, Thuy, Akhavan, Sepideh, Caby, Fabienne, Bonyhay, Luminita, Larrouy, Lucile, Gervais, Anne, Lebray, Pascal, Poynard, Thierry, Calmus, Yvon, Simon, Anne, Valantin, Marc-Antoine, Calvez, Vincent, Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève, Todesco, Eve
International journal of antimicrobial agents 2019 v.53 no.1 pp. 80-83
Hepatitis C virus, antiviral agents, genotype, guidelines, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, mutation, patients, viruses
More data on resistance of HCV genotype (GT) 3 and 4 to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are still needed. Here we investigated the presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) pre- and post-treatment and their emergence under DAAs in HCV GT3- and GT4-infected patients failing DAA regimens by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Sanger sequencing and NGS were performed on NS5B and NS5A in plasma samples prior to and post treatment of 13 patients. Positions implicated in resistance to anti-NS5A and anti-NS5B in the literature were analysed. No baseline RASs was detected in NS5B but one GT4r virus developed the mutation S282T at failure. In NS5A, pre-existing RASs or polymorphisms were detected in viruses of 6/10 patients (L28M for a GT4a, M28V for a GT4r, L30R for a GT4a, 2 GT4d and 1 GT4r, and T58P for a GT4d) by Sanger sequencing and in viruses of 7/10 patients by NGS. Additional baseline minority substitutions detected by NGS were Y93H in a GT3a, L28M in a GT4a and GT4d, and L28F in a GT4d virus. At failure, these substitutions were found at a frequency of 100%. Y93H was detected alone at baseline, whilst L28M and L28F were accompanied by polymorphisms L30R or L30R + T58P. Use of NGS in patients failing DAAs and infected by HCV GT3 and GT4 revealed the emergence of specific patterns of substitutions in NS5A and NS5B, in particular substitutions at position 28 in NS5A in GT4 virus, highlighting the need to list these substitutions in guidelines for resistance interpretation.