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Aptasensors as the future of antibiotics test kits-a case study of the aptamer application in the chloramphenicol detection

Khoshbin, Zahra, Verdian, Asma, Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza, Izadyar, Mohammad, Rouhbakhsh, Zeinab
Biosensors & bioelectronics 2018 v.122 pp. 263-283
Gram-negative bacteria, adverse effects, analytical kits, anemia, animal growth, antibiotics, aptasensors, case studies, chloramphenicol, diarrhea, drugs, electrochemistry, electrophoresis, foods, high performance liquid chromatography, humans, infectious diseases, kidneys, monitoring, nanomaterials, nausea, oligonucleotides, quantitative analysis
Antibiotics are a type of antimicrobial drug with the ubiquitous presence in foodstuff that effectively applied to treat the diseases and promote the animal growth worldwide. Chloramphenicol as one of the antibiotics with the broad action spectrum against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is widely applied for the effective treatment of infectious diseases in humans and animals. Unfortunately, the serious side effects of chloramphenicol, such as aplastic anemia, kidney damage, nausea, and diarrhea restrict its application in foodstuff and biomedical fields. Development of the sufficiently sensitive methods to detect chloramphenicol residues in food and clinical diagnosis seems to be an essential demand. Biosensors have been introduced as the promising tools to overcome the requirement. As one of the newest types of the biosensors, aptamer-based biosensors (aptasensors) are the efficient sensing platforms for the chloramphenicol monitoring. In the present review, we summarize the recent achievements of the accessible aptasensors for qualitative detection and quantitative determination of chloramphenicol as a candidate of the antibiotics. The present chloramphenicol aptasensors can be classified in two main optical and electrochemical categories. Also, the other formats of the aptasensing assays like the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microchip electrophoresis (MCE) have been reviewed. The enormous interest in utilizing the diverse nanomaterials is also highlighted in the fabrication of the chloramphenicol aptasensors. Finally, some results are presented based on the advantages and disadvantages of the studied aptasensors to achieve a promising perspective for designing the novel antibiotics test kits.