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Detection of Enzymes, Viruses, and Bacteria Using Glucose Meters

Das, Amrita, Cui, Xikai, Chivukula, Vasanta, Iyer, Suri S.
Analytical chemistry 2018 v.90 no.19 pp. 11589-11598
Escherichia coli, Orthomyxoviridae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, acetaminophen, alpha-mannosidase, bacteria, beta-galactosidase, blood, catechol, chemical species, detection limit, electrodes, glucose, glucose oxidase, pathogens, sheep, urine, viruses
We have developed innovative assays that can detect enzymes rapidly. Paracetamol- or catechol-bearing compounds, when exposed to their respective enzymes, released paracetamol or catechol, which can be detected using a standard glucose meter. This approach was used to detect a number of diverse analytes that include enzymes such as β-galactosidase and α-mannosidase and pathogens such as influenza viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and E. coli rapidly. The limit of detection for all analytes was extremely low and clinically relevant for influenza viruses. We also demonstrate that glucose oxidase or glucose dehydrogenase is not required because the paracetamol gets oxidized directly on the electrode surface. This indicates that test strips without glucose oxidase or dehydrogenase can be used, and we can detect analytes in the presence of high levels of background glucose. We demonstrate this unique nature of the assay to detect paracetamol in simulated urine and sheep blood without background interference of intrinsic glucose, indicating that glucose meters can be used to detect nonglucose analytes without background glucose interference.