Main content area

Novel and Traditional Organophosphate Esters in House Dust from South China: Association with Hand Wipes and Exposure Estimation

Tan, Hongli, Chen, Da, Peng, Changfeng, Liu, Xiaotu, Wu, Yan, Li, Xue, Du, Rui, Wang, Bin, Guo, Ying, Zeng, Eddy Y.
Environmental science & technology 2018 v.52 no.19 pp. 11017-11026
adults, biphenyl, bisphenol A, children, dust, esters, hand washing, humans, ingestion, organophosphorus compounds, phosphates, risk, temperature, China
The present study investigated the occurrence of 20 organophosphate esters (OPEs) in house dust from 51 South China homes and the risks of human exposure to OPEs via two pathways: dust ingestion and hand-to-mouth contact. In addition to several traditional OPEs, five out of six novel OPEs, including bisphenol A bis(deiphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDPP), cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDPP), and resorcinol-bis(diphenyl)phosphate (RDP), were frequently detected in house dust (median concentration: 59.7–531 ng/g). Eight of the 20 target OPEs were frequently detected in hand wipes collected from adults and children (n = 51 and 31, respectively), which in combination (referred to as Σ₈OPEs) had a median mass of 76.9 and 58.9 ng, respectively. Increasing dust concentrations of Σ₈OPEs or three individual substances among these eight OPEs, including tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), were strongly associated with their levels in children’s hand wipes (p < 0.05 in all cases). By contrast, in adults’ hand wipes only TPHP exhibited a marginally significant association with dust concentrations (p = 0.04). Levels of Σ₈OPEs in hand wipes from children, but not adults, were inversely influenced by hand washing frequency (p = 0.002), while indoor temperature was inversely associated with hand wipe levels of Σ₈OPEs from both children and adults (p = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). Exposure estimation suggests that hand-to-mouth contact represents another important pathway in addition to dust ingestion and that children are subjected to higher OPE exposure than adults.