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Novel and Traditional Organophosphate Esters in House Dust from South China: Association with Hand Wipes and Exposure Estimation
- Tan, Hongli, Chen, Da, Peng, Changfeng, Liu, Xiaotu, Wu, Yan, Li, Xue, Du, Rui, Wang, Bin, Guo, Ying, Zeng, Eddy Y.
- Environmental science & technology 2018 v.52 no.19 pp. 11017-11026
- adults, biphenyl, bisphenol A, children, dust, esters, hand washing, humans, ingestion, organophosphorus compounds, phosphates, risk, temperature, China
- The present study investigated the occurrence of 20 organophosphate esters (OPEs) in house dust from 51 South China homes and the risks of human exposure to OPEs via two pathways: dust ingestion and hand-to-mouth contact. In addition to several traditional OPEs, five out of six novel OPEs, including bisphenol A bis(deiphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDPP), cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDPP), and resorcinol-bis(diphenyl)phosphate (RDP), were frequently detected in house dust (median concentration: 59.7–531 ng/g). Eight of the 20 target OPEs were frequently detected in hand wipes collected from adults and children (n = 51 and 31, respectively), which in combination (referred to as Σ₈OPEs) had a median mass of 76.9 and 58.9 ng, respectively. Increasing dust concentrations of Σ₈OPEs or three individual substances among these eight OPEs, including tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), were strongly associated with their levels in children’s hand wipes (p < 0.05 in all cases). By contrast, in adults’ hand wipes only TPHP exhibited a marginally significant association with dust concentrations (p = 0.04). Levels of Σ₈OPEs in hand wipes from children, but not adults, were inversely influenced by hand washing frequency (p = 0.002), while indoor temperature was inversely associated with hand wipe levels of Σ₈OPEs from both children and adults (p = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). Exposure estimation suggests that hand-to-mouth contact represents another important pathway in addition to dust ingestion and that children are subjected to higher OPE exposure than adults.