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Linking N₂O Emissions from Biofertilizer-Amended Soil of Tea Plantations to the Abundance and Structure of N₂O-Reducing Microbial Communities

Xu, Shengjun, Feng, Shugeng, Sun, Haishu, Wu, Shanghua, Zhuang, Guoqiang, Deng, Ye, Bai, Zhihui, Jing, Chuanyong, Zhuang, Xuliang
Environmental science & technology 2018 v.52 no.19 pp. 11338-11345
Trichoderma viride, agroecosystems, biofertilizers, denitrifying microorganisms, fertilizer application, genes, greenhouse gas emissions, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, microbial communities, microbial nitrogen, nitrous oxide, plantations, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, soil, tea
Nitrous oxide (N₂O) contributes up to 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions, with approximately 70% from terrestrial sources; over one-third of this terrestrial emission has been linked to increased agricultural fertilizer use. Much of the nitrogen in fertilizers is converted to N₂O by microbial processes in soil. However, the potential mechanism of biofertilizers and the role of microbial communities in mitigating soil N₂O emissions are not fully understood. Here, we used a greenhouse-based pot experiment with tea plantation soil to investigate the effect of Trichoderma viride biofertilizer on N₂O emission. The addition of biofertilizer reduced N₂O emissions from fertilized soil by 67.6%. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of key functional genes involved in N₂O generation and reduction (amoA, nirK, nirS, and nosZ) showed an increased abundance of nirS and nosZ genes linked to the pronounced reduction in N₂O emissions. High-throughput sequencing of nosZ showed enhanced relative abundance of nosZ-harboring denitrifiers in the T. viride biofertilizer treatments, thus linking greater N₂O reduction capacity to the reduced emissions. Our findings showed that biofertilizers can affect the microbial nitrogen transformation process and reduce N₂O emissions from agroecosystems.