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The rob(1;29) chromosome translocation in endangered Andalusian cattle breeds

Rodero-Serrano, Evangelina, Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastián, González-Martinez, Ana, Rodero-Franganillo, Antonio, Moreno-Millán, Miguel
Livestock science 2013 v.158 no.1-3 pp. 32-39
bulls, cattle breeds, chromosome translocation, crossing, flocks, genetic drift, geographical variation, grazing, herds, heterozygosity, humans, natural mating, reproductive efficiency, reproductive isolation, robbing, sires, statistics, Colorado, Spain
In this study, we analysed the distribution of the t(1;29) Robertsonian translocation to determine whether this polymorphism contributes to the low reproduction efficiency observed in five endangered Andalusian (Spain) cattle breeds: Berrenda en Negro (BN), Berrenda en Colorado (BC), Cardena Andaluza (CA), Pajuna (PA) and Negra Andaluza (NA). All these breeds were reared exclusively in reproductive isolation under grazing conditions with natural mating. In total, we analysed the distribution of the rob(1;29) translocation in 714 animals: 192 BN, 235 BC, 156 CA, 56 PA and 75 NA. We also examined the translocation frequencies, F statistics and deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium among different herds and breeds and characterised the influence of geographical location and sex. The FST values (P<0.05) revealed differences among the breeds and herds in BC, BN and CA. There were no significant geographical differences, except in the Cardena breed (P<0.001). In addition to reproductive isolation, the differences observed among the herds might reflect the sporadic movement of bulls belonging to flocks with a high frequency of translocation, genetic drift and anthropic selection. The rob(1;29) frequency was reduced in some breeds, potentially reflecting the effects of human selection and breeding strategies implemented through official control programmes for this anomaly. In other breeds, the translocation remains present at high frequencies, reflecting crossbreeding with the Retinta breed, which has a high frequency of rob(1;29). No significant deviation in the expected percentage of heterozygotes was detected in any breed. The differences observed in the rob(1;29) frequencies in the endangered Andalusian cattle might be more attributable to internal factors than to differences between the breeds. Further studies regarding the mobility of sires among herds are warranted to determine the origin of the variations in the rob(1;29) frequencies observed in endangered Andalusian breeds.