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Partial replacement of NaCl with KCl in bread: Effect on sensory characteristics and consumer perception
- Antúnez, Lucía, Giménez, Ana, Vidal, Leticia, Ares, Gastón
- Journal of sensory studies 2018 v.33 no.5 pp. e12441
- bitterness, breads, consumer attitudes, cost effectiveness, off flavors, potassium chloride, saltiness, sensation, sensory evaluation, sodium, sodium chloride, texture
- Sodium reduction strategies that fully or partially compensate for the effect of reducing sodium on the sensoy profile of foods have been proposed as a cost‐effective alternative to decrease dietary sodium intake at the population level. The present work aimed at exploring the effect of partially replacing NaCl with KCl on the sensory characteristics and hedonic perception of toast bread. Equivalent salty concentration of NaCl : KCl blends were estimated relative to different NaCl concentrations, using paired comparisons with a panel of trained assessors. The influence of partially replacing NaCl by KCl on the dynamic sensory profile of toast breads was assessed using the Temporal Check‐all‐that‐apply approach with a trained panel. Finally, a consumer study was carried out to evaluate consumers' sensory and hedonic perception of toast breads produced by partially replacing 30% NaCl with KCl. Results from the present work suggest that KCl can be deemed effective at compensating for saltiness intensity in sodium reduced toast breads. Partial replacement of 30% NaCl with KCl did not significantly affect the sensory characteristics of toast breads. However, NaCl replacement equal or higher than 40% caused an increase in bitterness, off‐flavor, and metallic flavor. Heterogeneity in consumer hedonic reaction toward partial replacement of NaCl with KCl was observed, but mainly associated to differences in texture perception. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: In the context of growing concerns about the excessive sodium intake at the population level, results from the present work showed that 30% replacement of NaCl with KCl did not significantly affect consumers' sensory and hedonic perception of toast breads. This approach seems to be effective at compensating for saltiness intensity and proved to be promising for the development of low‐sodium food products.