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Effects of photoperiod, temperature and aging on adult diapause termination and post-diapause development in female Asian comma butterflies, Polygonia c-aureum Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) A Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology

Hiroyoshi, Satoshi, Reddy, Gadi V. P., Mitsuhashi, Jun
Journal of comparative physiology 2018 v.204 no.9-10 pp. 849-858
Polygonia c-aureum, adults, butterflies, cold treatment, diapause, eggs, females, ovarian development, photoperiod, rearing, temperature
Polygonia c-aureum females exhibit photoperiodically induced imaginal diapause, characterized by cessation of ovarian development. Females grown at a short daylength (SD) entered imaginal diapause, whereas those grown at a long daylength (LD) produced eggs rapidly after adult emergence at 21 °C. The termination of diapause was influenced by daylength: diapause ended faster at LD than SD. Complete termination of diapause took 30 days in unchilled females reared under LD at 21 °C. On the other hand, prompt, synchronized and strong diapause termination occurred at post-chilling periods. Photoperiods at post-chilling periods affected ovarian development, when the length of pre-chilling periods or the length of chilling periods was shorter, suggesting that these treatments were not enough to complete diapause development. Ovarian development proceeded earlier in chilled and subsequent warmed females than unchilled females. Wing damage was remarkable at post-chilling periods when females were reared under an adequate length of pre-chilling and chilling periods, especially comparing with females under pre-overwintering conditions without chilling, indicating that post-diapause reproductive development was weak in unchilled females. Thus, exposure to low temperatures is necessary for a strong diapause termination in this butterfly.