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Analysis of the origins of black carbon and carbon monoxide transported to Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei in China
- Liu, Xu-Yan, He, Ke-Bin, Zhang, Qiang, Lu, Zi-Feng, Wang, Si-Wen, Zhang, Yu-Xuan, Streets, David G.
- The Science of the total environment 2019 v.653 pp. 1364-1376
- autumn, carbon, carbon monoxide, emissions factor, latitude, monsoon season, receptors, spring, summer, wind, winter, China
- A novel back-trajectory approach was adopted to determine the origins of black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) transported to Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei. Results showed that the transport efficiency was controlled mainly by mid-latitude westerlies in winter, the South Asian monsoon in summer and prevailing westerly and northwesterly winds in spring and autumn. Hebei was identified as the most important source region of both BC (respectively accounting for 55% and 49%) and CO (39% and 38%) transported to Beijing and Tianjin. Inner Mongolia contributed more to the effective emission intensity (EEI) in winter than in summer for both BC and CO transported to Beijing and Tianjin. Shandong was responsible for higher EEI in summer than in winter. The six provinces making the greatest contributions to BC transported to Hebei were Shandong (19%), Shanxi (19%), Inner Mongolia (17%), Beijing (11%), Henan (11%), and Tianjin (10%), whereas those making the greatest contributions to CO transported to Hebei were Shandong (20%), Inner Mongolia (10%), Tianjin (9%), Henan (9%), Shanxi (9%), and Beijing (8%). In summary, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, Tianjin and Shanxi were determined as the dominant source regions of not only BC but also CO transported to Beijing. Hebei, Shandong, Beijing, Inner Mongolia, Henan, Liaoning and Shanxi were relatively important source regions for Tianjin. Shandong, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Beijing, Henan, Tianjin, Liaoning, Jiangsu and Anhui were the main source regions for Hebei. Residential and industrial sectors were the dominant sectors for BC and CO transported to the receptors, respectively. These results are consistent with the results of previous studies. Finally, comparing the observed ΔBC/ΔCO ratio with the enhancement ratio of the EEI of BC with that of CO (ΔEEIBC/ΔEEICO) at Miyun site, we further confirmed that the EEI can be used to represent the amounts of BC and CO reaching receptors.