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Effect of crude extracts from Nodularia spumigena on round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)

Złoch, Ilona, Hebel, Agnieszka, Mazur-Marzec, Hanna
Marine environmental research 2018 v.140 pp. 61-68
Neogobius melanostomus, Nodularia spumigena, biomarkers, catalase, enzyme activity, fish, gills, glutathione, glutathione transferase, hepatotoxicity, laboratory experimentation, liver, muscles, mussels, nitrogen fixation, nodularin, peroxidase, trophic levels, Baltic Sea
Nodularia spumigena is a nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea. Nodularin (NOD), the hepatotoxic peptide produced by this cyanobacterium, accumulates in the organisms from different trophic levels. In this paper, the effects of N. spumigena cell extract on the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) was investigated under laboratory conditions. This benthic fish species feed on mussels in which nodularin accumulation was well documented.In current study a sharp increase in the NOD concentration in analyzed organs was observed after 24 h (PPIA) after 72 h of exposure (LC/MS). To determine the direction and strength of the changes induced in the fish by the toxin, several biochemical markers of exposure such as concentration of glutathione and activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase were used. In analyzed organs (liver, gills and muscle) of the round goby, the activity of these enzymes were suppressed. Higher GSH/protein amount and CAT and POD activity in gills than in liver reflects the importance of gills in NOD entering into analyzed fish body when exposed to toxin. The results indicate that the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) exposed to extracts from N. spumigena cells triggered a defense system in a time-dependent manner. The obtained results contribute to a better understanding of fish response to the presence of compounds produced by N. spumigena.