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Multiscale bioprinting of vascularized models

Miri, Amir K., Khalilpour, Akbar, Cecen, Berivan, Maharjan, Sushila, Shin, Su Ryon, Khademhosseini, Ali
Biomaterials 2019 v.198 pp. 204-216
angiogenesis, bioprinting, blood circulation, blood vessels, models, tissue engineering, tissue repair
A basic prerequisite for the survival and function of three-dimensional (3D) engineered tissue constructs is the establishment of blood vessels. 3D bioprinting of vascular networks with hierarchical structures that resemble in vivo structures has allowed blood circulation within thick tissue constructs to accelerate vascularization and enhance tissue regeneration. Successful rapid vascularization of tissue constructs requires synergy between fabrication of perfusable channels and functional bioinks that induce angiogenesis and capillary formation within constructs. Combinations of 3D bioprinting techniques and four-dimensional (4D) printing concepts through patterning proangiogenic factors may offer novel solutions for implantation of thick constructs. In this review, we cover current bioprinting techniques for vascularized tissue constructs with vasculatures ranging from capillaries to large blood vessels and discuss how to implement these approaches for patterning proangiogenic factors to maintain long-term, stimuli-controlled formation of new capillaries.