Main content area

Hematology of Experimental Acute Sarcocystis bovicanis Infection in Calves. II. Serum Biochemistry and Hemostasis Studies

Prasse, K. W., Fayer, R.
Daboia russelii, Holstein, L-iditol dehydrogenase, Sarcocystis, acute course, albumins, anemia, animal pathology, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, blood coagulation, blood platelets, blood serum, calcium, calves, creatine kinase, death, erythrocytes, factor VII, fibrin, glucose, hematology, hemostasis, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoalbuminemia, infectious diseases, liver, magnesium, muscles, phosphorus, potassium, protein content, prothrombin, sodium, thrombin, thromboplastin, tissues, urea nitrogen, uremia, viper venoms
Of four Holstein-Friesian calves infected with 200,000 sporocysts of Sarcocystis bovicanis, three become ill and died on days 35, 55, and 59 of a 63-day experiment. No control calves became ill or died. Serum biochemicals and hematologic indicators of hemostasis from both groups were measured throughout the experiment. Creatine phosphokinase values for both groups increased markedly during acute infection. Lactic dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase values were high in infected calves on days 25 to 35 and days 24 to 63, respectively, indicating injury of muscle, liver, or other tissues. Sorbitol dehydrogenase values were significantly higher for infected than for control calves on days 25 and 35, indicating liver injury. Serum bilirubin and blood urea nitrogen values were significantly increased in three anemic infected calves from day 25 or 26 to day 35, probably reflecting destruction of erythrocytes. The fourth infected calf was not anemic and had no hyperbilirubinemia and only minimal azotemia. Serum protein and albumin values decreased in infected calves on days 21 to 30 or 35, when, although hypoalbuminemia persisted, total protein concentration increased. Glucose, calcium, sodium, and chloride values decreased in infected calves slightly before onset of illness and remained low throughout the experiment. Potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus values did not differ between infected and control calves. Activated partial thromboplastin time and Russell's viper venom time were normal; prothrombin time was significantly higher from day 27 to day 49 in infected calves. This pattern was interpreted as evidence for acquired factor VII deficiency. Abnormal retraction of blood clots and enlarged platelets in blood smears, which indicate platelet dysfunction and increased platelet turnover, respectively, were seen on days 27 through 35 in anemic infected calves. Values for thrombin time (three calves) and fibrin degradation product concentration (one calf) increased just before death of the infected calves.