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Cell polarity signaling
- Bloch, Daria, Yalovsky, Shaul
- Current opinion in plant biology 2013 v.16 no.6 pp. 734-742
- G-proteins, cell communication, eukaryotic cells, flagellum, hormonal regulation, plant hormones, plant physiology
- Cell polarity is a fundamental entity of living organisms. Cells must receive accurate decisions where to divide and along which plane, along which axis to grow, where to grow structures like flagellum or filopodium and how to differentially respond to external stimuli. In multicellular organisms cell polarity also regulates cell–cell communication, pattern formation and cell identity. In eukaryotes the RHO family of small G proteins have emerged as central regulators of cell polarity signaling. It is by now well established that ROPs, the plant specific RHO subfamily members, affect cell polarization. Work carried out over the last several years is beginning to reveal how ROPs are activated, how their activity is spatially regulated, through which effectors they regulate cell polarity and how they interact with hormonal signaling and other polarity determinants. The emerging picture is that while the mechanisms of cell polarity signaling are often unique to plants, the principles that govern cell polarization signaling can be similar. In this review, we provide an updated view of polarity signaling in plants, primarily focusing on the function of ROPs and how they interact with and coordinate different polarity determinants.