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Bioaccessibility of polychlorinated dioxins and furans in soil from a Superfund site

Roberts, Stephen M., Lowney, Yvette W., Stuchal, Leah D.
Chemosphere 2019 v.214 pp. 418-423
bioavailability, chlorination, creosote, furans, humans, intestines, neoplasms, organic carbon, pH, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, risk, soil, soil sampling, surface area, toxicity, Florida
Bioaccessibilities of PCDD/PCDF congeners contributing to cancer risk were determined in twelve soil samples from the American Creosote Works Superfund site in Florida. Based upon sample locations, congener profiles (i.e., the same dominant congeners), and total (Toxic Equivalent; TEQ) concentrations, each of these samples has PCDD/PCDF contamination reasonably attributable to the site. Bioaccessibility was determined using a 2-phase in vitro extraction method that included both simulated gastric and intestinal conditions of the human GI tract. Measured congener-specific bioaccessibility values ranged from 34.3 to 62.1%. There was no apparent relationship between the extent of chlorination of PCDD/PCDF congeners and their bioaccessibility. TEQ-weighted bioaccessibility values varied among individual soil samples, which is not unexpected based upon the literature. This variability could not be explained by differences in soil pH, composition, or organic carbon content. The average TEQ-weighted bioaccessibility value of 59% for the twelve samples was accepted as representing site-specific bioavailability of PCDD/PCDFs. This value is higher than most dioxin/furan bioaccessibility values reported in the literature and at the upper end of the range of relative oral bioavailability (RBA) values reported for PCDD/PCDFs from in vivo bioavailability studies. This study used a finer fraction of soil particles (<150 microns versus the more typical <250 microns) to better represent soil that is incidentally ingested. This finer fraction would be expected to have a greater surface area available for extraction of PCDD/PCDFs per unit mass, which might account for the greater than expected bioaccessibility.